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Water Pollution
Water pollution is a large set of adverse effects upon water bodies (lakes, rivers, oceans, groundwater) caused by human activities. Although natural phenomena such as volcanoes, storms, earthquakes etc. also cause major changes in water quality and the ecological status of water, these are not deemed to be pollution. Water pollution has many causes and characteristics. Humans and other farmed organisms produce bodily wastes which enter rivers, lakes, oceans and other surface waters. These wastes increase the solids suspended in the water (turbidity), they can increase the concentration of bacteria and viruses leading to potential health impacts. Increases in nutrient loading may lead to eutrophication. Organic wastes such as sewage and farm waste impose high oxygen demands on the receiving water leading to oxygen depletion with potentially severe impacts on the whole eco-system. Industries discharge a variety of pollutants in their wastewater including heavy metals, organic toxins, oils, nutrients, and solids. Discharges can also have thermal effects, especially those form power stations, and these too reduce the available oxygen. Silt-bearing runoff from many activities including construction sites, forestry and farms can inhibit the penetration of sunlight through the water column restricting photosynthesis and causing blanketing of the lake or river bed which in turns damages the ecology.

Pollutants in water include a wide spectrum of chemicals, pathogens, and physical chemistry or sensory changes. Many of the chemical substances are toxic or even carcinogenic. Pathogens can obviously produce waterborne diseases in either human or animal hosts. Alteration of water's physical chemistry include acidity, conductivity, temperature, and excessive nutrient loading (eutrophication). Even many of the municipal water supplies in developed countries can present health risks. In the U.S.in 1972 stringent federal laws were enacted setting specific discharge limitations.

Water pollution is a serious problem in the global context. It has been suggested that it is the leading worldwide cause of death and disease, and that it accounts for the deaths of more than 14,000 people daily.

    Principal sources of water pollution are:
  • industrial discharge of chemical wastes and byproducts
  • discharge of poorly-treated or untreated sewage
  • surface runoff containing pesticides
  • slash and burn farming practice, which is often an element within shifting cultivation agricultural systems
  • surface runoff containing spilled petroleum products
  • surface runoff from construction sites, farms, or paved and other impervious surfaces e.g. silt
  • discharge of contaminated and/or heated water used for industrial processes
  • acid rain caused by industrial discharge of sulfur dioxide (by burning high-sulfur fossil fuels)
  • excess nutrients added by runoff containing detergents or fertilizers
  • underground storage tank leakage, leading to soil contamination, thence aquifer contamination.
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Basic Project Information and project description
1. Inception mission to review ICWC training programs, staff and facilities
2. Study tour to Canada for senior policy makers
3a. Study tour to North America for senior water managers
3b. In-country workshops and seminars for senior water managers
4. Short-term water reform courses
5. Short-term technical courses
6a. Development of self-teaching courses and regional program
6b. Regional dissemination missions
7. Training of ICWC staff and equipment procurement
8. Project Management
9. Future of the ICWC Training Center
McGill University
Mount Royal College
United States Agency for International Development
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2. Training Programs
3. Tourism for Water Specialists

- Welcome to Uzbekistan
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1. General Description
2. Training Programs
3. Tourism for Water Specialists

- Welcome to Uzbekistan
- Our Services and Prices
- Our Tours